Курсова робота «Grammatical categories. The category of activity and passivity.», 2014 рікЗ предмету Іноземні мови · додано 15.03.2014 08:45 · від anastasia · Додати в закладки
In this work we have examined the use of the passive in English. The goal was to study the relevance of the use of the passivity activity, to analyze the reasons for choosing the passive, to reveal the grammatical nature of the passive constructions and to register different types of such constructions, to find out which constructions compete with the passive and explore the role of passive in English.
English allows a number of passive constructions which are not possible in many of the other languages with similar passive forms.
The English passive has been studied from many different linguistic angles. It is a construction that may be dificult in terms of sentence comprehension, but these dificulties are balanced out by a better fit between informational status, discourse needs, and syntactic structure.
In my work we have looked separately at each component of the passive construction in English and at their contribution as a whole.
The syntactic and semantic asymmetry among the arguments of the passivized verbs is also an important factor in determining which verbs can be passivized and which cannot. Syntectically, a verb needs to have an external argument in order to form a passive. In addition, passivization works best if the event is not just transitive in the structural sense of the term, but if it is also semantically transitive.
So all scholars agree that passive-voice constructions exhibit the following properties:
- they contain a form of the verb to be (or to get) plus a Past Participle of a transitive verb. They express an action carried out on the subject of the sentence;
- they contain an agent, either expressed or more frequently unexpressed;
- they can almost always be rewritten in the active voice with the agent moved to the subject position with no essential change of meaning.
The analysis in chapter II showed that all the components typically associated with the passive (the theme subject, the auxilary be, and the by-phrase) depend on the syntactic and semantic characteristics of the verb and on the way the passive participle is embedded in its syntactic environment; they are not inherent in the construction.
Ch. Fillmore, Yu.S. Stepanov, N.D. Arutyunova, Bondarko A.V., Plugyan V.Y., , S.B. Chafe, C.R. Quirk, Bylygina T.V., Close R.A. state that the English passive has been framed as a specific version of a construction that exists in many languages and that is shaped by principles of Universal Grammar. However, it is not possible to separate the general aspects of the construction from those that are particulary “English”. For example, if English had not developed into a prepositional stranding language, it would not allow prepositional passives. [27, p. 74 ; 1, p.268; 9, p. 352; 28, p. 118-136 ; 3, p. 320 ; 24, 252; 29, p. 27-84; 24, p. 432]
The passive voice is a grammatical category that is expressed by some surface syntactic structures (specifically, a "voice"). The noun or noun phrase that would be the object of an active sentence (such as Our troops defeated the enemy) appears as the subject of a sentence with passive voice
Use of the English passive varies with speech styles. Some publications' style papers discourage use of the passive voice, while others encourage it. Although some purveyors of usage advice, including George Orwell and William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, discourage use of the passive in English, its usefulness is generally recognized, particularly in cases where the patient is more important than the agent, but also in some cases where it is desired to emphasize the agent.