Курсова робота «Англіцизми та американізми в публіцистичних текстах та особливості їх перекладц українською мовою.», 2013 рікЗ предмету Інше · додано 28.12.2013 22:00 · від Юля Майхрович · Додати в закладки
Foreign words by origin are an integral part of the Ukrainian vocabulary, their borrowing is closely connected with the history of our people, in various stages of formation and development of their own state, entering the varied political, socio-economic and cultural relations with other nations of the world and thus, that allowed to enrich and change the Ukrainian language. Approximately 75-80 % of all borrowings in the Ukrainian language belong to Americanisms and Anglicisms.
Anglicism is a kind of linguistic borrowing: the word, its individual value, statement, etc., which are borrowed from English or translated from it, or created for its sample.
Today, the modern Ukrainian language has more than 1000 Anglicisms (тінейджер – підліток; пірсинг - наколка; мейнстрім - основний напрямок; креативний - творчий, винахідливий; голкіпер – воротар; мас медіа - засоби масової інформації; міленіум – тисячоліття; уікенд – вихідні; хоррор - фільм жахів; хенд-мейд - ручна робота; лузер – невдаха, etc.).
Americanism is a lexical, phonetic and grammatical feature of English in the United States, representing a relatively few deviations from the British literary norms. These are words that originated from the United States and have proliferated in England: the names of plants and animals from North American continent, the various phenomena associated with the state and the U.S. political system, with the life of Americans. Also Americanisms include words borrowed from American dialect due to the wide spread of American movies, songs and western movements.
Word spread in the U.S., but not British English can be archaic (fall - autumn, instead of autumn). Often these words are formed by combination of two words into one (deadbeat, brainstorm, fixer-upper). In addition, there are words that have different meanings in American English and British English.
The Ukrainian borrowings from English are characterized by:
- the sound combination [ʤ] as in: бюджет, джаз, джентльмен, джемпер;
- the sound combination [ai], [ei] as in: гайморит, інсайд, тролейбус, хокей;
- the suffix -инг (-інг) as in: мітинг, пудинг, демпінг, тюбінг.
In the formal and semantic evolution of English words in Ukrainian and interaction and mutual influence of language systems of English and Ukrainian languages most noticed in the early stages. The process of lexical-semantic evolution of English words in Ukrainian language is the most significant in the overall process of borrowing words. The lexical-semantic system of the source language is a system that encourages further development or disappearance of words with the lexical stock of the language that borrows. The existence of many objective reasons causing lexical borrowing make it possible to penetrate almost any English word in the Ukrainian language.
Publicist style is a kind of language that is used in public and political life of society. Most of the texts nonfiction genres designed to present fleeting life (memos, reports, interviews, statements, messages) in periodicals and broadcast. However, in Ukrainian publicist style there are texts, including journalistic and artistic works of such great public interest, national-and statetheme.
The sphere of use, the purpose of public style and its features require certain linguistic forms of its expression. First of all, these can be attributed to socio-political vocabulary: equity, relevance, community, state, unity, idea, ideology, politics, progress, reactionary mode, community, etc. that are commonly used in the public sphere.
Investigation of the use and translation of Americanisms and Anglicisms in nonfiction texts allowed us to reach the following conclusions. The language of modern public texts is characterized by:
1) the influx of new vocabulary;
2) migration timing;
3) variability malignancies;
4) phonemic and grapheme differences of the borrowings;
5) preferential use of borrowings in the socio-political and economic publications;
6) expanding the semantic boundaries of lexemes due to adaptation.
The most typical ways of translation Anglicisms and Americanisms are transcription and transliteration.