Реферат «Fundamentals of Cognitive Grammar», 2010 рікЗ предмету Філологія · додано 08.12.2011 23:00 · від Helena_Berger · Додати в закладки
Cognitive Linguistics takes language as symbolic and cognitive in nature. Human experience is the motivation for what is meaningful in the human mind; thought is not a manipulation of symbols but the application of cognitive processes to conceptual structures. Meaning structures come not only from the direct relationship with the external world but also from the nature of bodily and social experience (how humans interact with the world) and from human capacity to project from some aspects based on this experience to some abstract conceptual structures. This is perhaps one of the achievements of this approach: the fact that imaginative aspects of reason, such as metaphor, metonymy and mental imagery are seen as central to reason, not as extra-linguistic aspects. This allows for the existence of those meanings that do not have real-world reference.
Cognitive Linguistics is a heterogeneous approach and as such, there are many other important research areas – language acquisition and learning, translation, typology and lexicalization, cultural models – and influential approaches under the umbrella of Cognitive Linguistics – Cognitive, Construction, and Mental Spaces – which are important and influential.
Cognitive Grammar is a theory of language which has been developing since the late 1970's. Underlying the theory is the assumption that language is inherently symbolic in nature and that a language provides its speakers with a set of resources for relating phonological structures with semantic structures. Cognitive Grammar considers the basic units of language to be symbols or conventional pairings of a semantic structure with a phonological label. Grammar consists of constraints on how these units can be combined to generate larger phrases which are also a pairing of semantics and phonology. The semantic aspects are modeled as image schemas rather than propositions, and because of the tight binding with the label, each can invoke the other.
Its status is such that many of the theoretical constructs developed by Langacker have been widely adopted by other theoretical, analytical and descriptive frameworks and perspectives within the wider cognitive linguistic movement. Moreover, in addition to being a pivotal theoretical development within Cognitive Linguistics, Cognitive Grammar has been, and is, increasingly influential in a broader linguistic and cognitive science context.