Курсова робота «Noncooperative quantitative oligopoly», 2010 рік

З предмету Мікроекономіка · додано 10.04.2011 15:52 · від Sungreal · Додати в закладки
35 грн Вартість завантаження

Зміст

Introduction 4 Chapter 1. Oligopoly 5 1.1. Description 5 1.2. Duopoly 7 1.3. Oligopoly in Ukraine 9 1.4. Demand curve 10 Chapter 2. Noncooperative quantitative oligopoly and its models 12 2.1. Definition and general characteristics 12 2.2. The Cournot Model 13 2.2.1. Historical background. 13 2.2.2. General assumptions of the Cournot model. 13 2.2.3. Example Model 14 2.2.4. Residual demand curves in oligopoly models 14 2.2.5. Profit maximization given a residual demand curve 15 2.2.6. Finding a Nash equilibrium in the Cournot Model 18 2.3. The Stackelberg Model 19 2.3.1. Assumptions of The Stackelberg Model 20 2.3.2. Example model and residual demand curve in the Stackelberg Model 20 2.3.3. Profit maximization in Stackelberg model 21 2.4. The Bertrand Model 23 2.4.1. Introduction to the Bertrand Model 23 2.4.2. Resudual demand curves in the Bertrand Model 24 2.4.3. Best response functions in the Bertrand model 26 2.4.4. Equilibrum in the Bertrand Model 28 2.4.5. Criticisms of the Bertrand Model 28 Chapter 3. Game theory 30 3.1. What is game theory? 30 3.2. Representation of game, application and challenges 32 3.3. Nesh equilibrum 32 3.3.1. Where is the Nesh equilibrium used? 32 3.3.2. Informal definition 33 3.3.3. Prisoner’s Dilemma 34 3.3.4. Coordination game 37 Conclusion 40 List of literature 42 Appendix

Висновок

Estimating the importance of oligopolistic structures, I should notice first inevitability of their shaping as an objective process, flowing from open competition and longing of enterprises for achievement of optimal scale of production. Secondly in spite of on positive as well as on negative estimation of oligopoly in modern economic life, it is necessary to gratitude an objective inevitability of their existence.

Positive value of oligopolistic structures is connected with achievements of research progress. During last decennial events there were achieved significant success in development of science and technologies (spacecraft, aircraft, electronic, chemical and oil industries) in many branches with oligpolistic structures. Oligopoly has great financial resources and also outstanding influence on political and economical circle of society that gives them opportunity to participate in realization of projects and programs financed from communal funds. As a rule small competitive enterprises don’t have enough money for realization of their developments.

Negative value of oligopoly is defined by such moments. First of all oligopoly in its structure is very close t monopoly, and it means that it can has such negative consequences as monopoly has. By other words, oligopoly gives the opportunity of getting of excess profit to enterprises. Besides, if monopolies are controlled by state, oligopolies often get out this control, covering with competition of few firms on market, indeed put secret collusion and work as monopolists. It can be a reason of reducing the efficiency of using available resources and deterioration of satisfaction of society’s needs.

To my mind noncooperative oligopolies don’t make any harm for economy and society as firm that belong to noncooperative oligopolies don’t put themselves into any secret collusion, they don’t agree among competitors about the prices on goods and services of their branch. I think that it give an opportunity for honest struggle for buyers (consumers) inside the branch. It means that prices on products they produce won’t set too high as in monopoly or cooperative oligopoly.

Speaking about oligopolies I’d like to say that to my mind it is efficient as it makes a great contribution into development of economic growing, participating in investigations and developments of new products and technologies and introducing these inventions into production. The reason of it is that participants of oligopoly constantly face with competition from their adversary’s side and they have reasons for active use of technical progress for improvement of their own position on market.

I think that existence of noncooperative oligopoly is a positive phenomena and government of our country should do its best to fight against monopoly and try to transform it into oligopoly.

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