Курсова робота «Problems of employment and social protection of population», 2005 рікЗ предмету Економіка праці · додано 24.03.2011 21:30 · від Cлава · Додати в закладки
Employment, it is extraordinarily important the socio-economic phenomenon which represents the rational use of resources of labour, satisfied necessities of national economy in labour force, providing of the proper standard of living of the concerned population, satisfaction of necessities of workers in the increase of professional level, in comprehensive development of personality.
Legal maintenance of employment consists, that labour is the absolute law of man and this right is guaranteed the citizen of Ukraine the state. The state is instrumental in employment through pursuing an active socio-economic policy, directed on creation of workplaces and development of entrepreneurial activity. Distinguish such forms of employment: full, incomplete, partial, primary and second employment.
The executive system of realization of public policy of employment of population is government service of employment. Service of employment in Ukraine at once was formed as a state system is centralized on legal framework of Law on employment of population and on a base widely ramified government service of employment with the use of its material and technical base, system of account and skilled composition of workers. Government service of employment was created in 1990 its duties and rights were certain the article of a 19 Law of Ukraine “About employment of population”. The main functions of service of employment are:
• a market of labour and informing analysis is about his state;
• labour mediation and assistance employers in providing of enterprises labour force, and to the citizens — in the receipt of work; it is adjusting of labour-market, which is carried out both through labour mediation and through realization of the programs of vocational orientation, and also assistance employment;
• help an unemployed person, which includes for itself both previous functions and financial support on the period of unemployment;
• direct participate in realization of public policy of employment and others like that.
Such centers of employment function in Ukraine: state, Crimean republican, areas, district and district in towns.
The analysis of features of forming of labour-market in Ukraine testifies that the mechanism of his adjusting must take into account, from one side, general conformities to the law organizations of market, incident to the market economy, and from other are socio-economic and political features of development of our state.
The processes of employment of population are regulated at three levels: to state, regional and at the level of enterprise. In order that a policy of adjusting of processes of employment was effective, maximal co-ordination of actions is needed at all levels.
Another index of labour-market is unemployment. Unemployment is the socio-economic phenomenon at which part of labour force (economic active population) is not busy in the field of economics. That in the real life of unemployment comes forward as exceeding supply of labour force above demand on her.
The modern theories of labour-market distinguish, mainly, four types of unemployment: friction, structural, secreted and cyclic. In Ukraine, today we can observe the cyclic unemployment of population.
In Ukraine the amount of unemployed persons in 2009 year was multiplied as compared to 2007 (180 million persons) almost on 30 million people - approximately to 210 million of people of, which answers an unemployment rate in 6,5%.
The state is instrumental in unoccupied citizens in proceeding in their labour activity and provides them such types of indemnifications:
a) grant of the special guarantees workers, to freed from enterprises, establishments, organizations;
b) payment of grants is in the period of professional preparation or retraining and including of this period to general and continuous labour experience;
c) payment in accordance with established procedure of help is on unemployment;
d) presentation of additional financial help an unemployed citizen and his family members taking into account the presence of persons old age and minor children which are on his maintenance.
The state is instrumental in employment through pursuing an active socio-economic policy, directed on creation of workplaces and development of entrepreneurial activity. But unfortunately in the conditions of modern economic crisis in Ukraine, as well as in the whole world, an unemployment rate is multiplied with every day. For today there are approximately 210 million people unemployed in Ukraine. Unfortunately every day an unemployment rate increased and employment of population decreased.