Дипломна робота «Функціонування фразеологічних зворотів та вільних словосполучень в англійських казках», 2010 рікЗ предмету Іноземні мови · додано 11.06.2010 23:30 · від dansja · Додати в закладки
In our diploma paper we investigated the problem of semantic and structural criteria distinguishing phraseological units from free word-groups and their functioning in English fairy-tales. Having analyzed different critical works we came to the following conclusion:
1) Phraseological units are non-motivated word-groups that cannot be freely made up in speech but are reproduced as ready-made units. The essential feature of phraseological units is the stability of lexical components and lack of motivation, which is also called idiomaticity.
2) We have investigated two major criteria for distinguishing between phraseological units and free word-groups. These are semantic and structural. On the semantic level phraseological units posses the semantic unity and normally convey a single notion. The current meaning of constituent words are not taken into the consideration only the actual meaning of the whole meaning creates a new image. For example: a bed of roses – a relaxed and luxurious situation, to set one’s cap at somebody – to try and attract a man. The effective power of different figures of speech, such as: metaphor, comparison, simile, metonymy, euphemism, and hyperbole add emotional coloring to the word combination and make it more figurative.
In a free word-group each element has a much greater semantic independence. Each component may be substituted without affecting the meaning of the other. For example: to give a flower, to give a pencil.
3) The structural criteria also presuppose some distinctive features characterizing phraseological units and contrasting them to free word-groups. Structurally speaking phraseological units posses structural invariability, which finds its reflection in the following restrictions: restriction in substitution, restriction in introducing any additional components into their structure, grammatical invariability.
We can also insist on the existence of syntactical relations within a phraseological unit, which can be proved by the possibility of syntactical transformations of elements without destroying the phraseological unit.
4) Phraseological units have their own specific features, which enhance their stability and cohesion. These are euphonic, imaginative and connotative qualities. Many phraseological units are distinctly rhythmical; contain alliteration, rhyme, imagery, contrast etc. These features have been always treated from the point of view of style and expressiveness.
5) Phraseological units perform different functions in sentences. We can distinguish pharaseological units that are nominal phrase: the root of the matter, verbal phrases: to lose temper, adjectival phrases: as cool as a cucumber, adverbial phrases: at the eleventh hour, interjectional phrases: Holy Moses! Or stereotyped sentences: How do you do? The list of types enumerated above gives a clear notion of the contradictory nature of the phraseological units: structured like phrases they function as words.
6) A person’s competence in actively using the idioms and fixed expressions of a foreign language hardly ever matches that of a native speaker. The main problems that idiomatic and fixed expressions pose in translation relate to two main areas: the ability to recognize and interpret an idiom correctly; and the difficulties involved in rendering the various aspects of meaning that an idiom or fixed expression conveys into the target language.