Реферат «Архітектура Англії (на англ. мові)», 2009 рік

З предмету Іноземні мови · додано 26.11.2009 17:30 · від advicin · Додати в закладки
8 грн Вартість завантаження


1. Periods of British Architecture: a) Roman and Anglo-Saxon architecture b) Norman (Romanesque) and Anglo-Norman architecture c) Gothic architecture d) Tudor architecture e) Renaissance architecture f) Elizabethan architecture g) Jacobean architecture h) Baroque architecture i) Georgian architecture j) Victorian architecture k) 20th-century architecture 2. Architecture today


In the past architecture tended to serve members of wealthy and privileged elite whose concern for public good rarely affected their taste for architecture. By the middle of the 20th century architects were cast in a different role, as servants of the Welfare State. They had to design homes, hospitals and educational buildings on an unprecedented scale. For the first time people lived, studied and increasingly worked in environments designed by architects. Most architects at the time derived their livelihood from public sources, either directly working for local or national government, or as employees in firms who undertook public commissions. In the 1980s publicly funded construction declined, and architects were able to engage in business practices which had previously been forbidden by professional codes of conduct. They included competing on fees and engaging in property development.

Fifty years ago it seemed that architecture had found a permanent social role. That led, perhaps to complacency between architects and the institutions which employed and commissioned them. Now competition and social pressures have generated a much greater fluidity and response from the profession.

At present most architects work in private firms. Architecture, in its sources of work and its mode of operation, is now firmly located in the private sector.

Architecture belongs in two industries. It is closely related to some aspects of design, from graphics to design. But it is also part of the construction industry, where it comes into contact with building firms and product manufacturers, as well as other professional disciplines such as engineers and quantity surveyors.

A generation ago many architects might have preferred to build new buildings rather than work with existing buildings and sites. But social and economic pressures have encouraged architects to broaden their views and to accept much wider types of commissions. The process has had many beneficial outcomes. Architects have found more work, and the benefits of creative design are being applied to a wide range of residential, leisure and working facilities in a diverse range of environments.

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